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《A Guide Of English Grammar》之四(时态和语态及虚拟



  He was seeing somebody creeping into the house through the open window last night。

Since you have enough money,you needn't have borrowedmoney from me.Whydid you still borrow some?(事实是借钱了)

  I don’t know where he will go tomorrow. 我不知道他明天去哪儿。(宾语从句)


  (5)在no sooner…than…, hardly/scarcely…when/before…句型中,主句常用过去完成时。

He should tell lies,i would punish him.→should he tell lies,i would punish him.

  (画线部分一般不用will be)


  (4)表示所有、占有的动词:belong to, owe, own, possess, hold(容纳);

16.didn't need to do和need not have done的区别:


But for可用介词without代替之后仍接名词。


I hope that he may live long.→May he live long!

  See to it that you include in the paper whatever questions they didn’t know the answer to last time。


  I hope her health will have improved greatly by the time we come back next year。

7.4.as if或as though之后可接不定式,表示即将发生的状况。

  (3)be to (do)表示安排、计划、决定、命令或注定要发生的事,如:

4.用一般将来时的时机:主语 will 原形动词表将来要发生的动作或状态。

  (3)表示思考、看法的动词:believe, doubt, expect, forget, hope, feel, mean, know, agree, realize, mind, recall, recollect, remember, trust, suppose;

10.使用将来进行时的时机:主语 willbe 现在分词,表于将来某时将进行的动作。

  By the time you arrive in London, we will have stayed in Europe for two weeks。

I hope they have finished the work.


I wish for a chance to try it.

  比较:I’ll tell him when you ring again。你再打电话时我告诉他。(状语从句)


美洲杯冠军竞猜,  (6)be, begin, come, depart, get off, go, leave, return, start的一般现在时表示按日历或时刻表要发生的将来动作或事件,如:

He had written the letter when I came.



  The company has been promising a rise in salary for ages, but nothing has happened。



I have been studying English since I went to college.

  (8)在make sure, make certain, see (to it) 后的that从句中,谓语动词用一般现在时代替将来时,如:


  The school board listened quietly as John read the demand that his followers had been demonstrating for。

①must have p.p.一定曾经……he is learned,he must have recieved a good education.

  (1997年考研[微博]题, belong表示归属,不用于进行式)

I wish he had been here.=I would rather he had been here.

  We had just had our breakfast when an old man came to the door。

⑤现在完成时和现在完成进行时的动词与"for 一段时间"连用时,该动词所表示动作必须可连续进行。否则采用下列结构才能与since连用:it is 一段时间+since 非连续动词/时点

  (include 不能用will include或其他形式)

When you come ,everything will have been finished.

  (1)be going to表示现在的打算和意图;

Ihope he will beback.


If he were lazy,he might fail.→were he lazy,he might fail.

  (4)be about to (do)表示将要(做),如:

When I have money,I will buy a car.

  I’ll tell him when you will ring again. 我告诉他你什么时候再来电话。(宾语从句)

But for his help,I couldn't have done it.=without his help,I couldn't have done it.

  (2)by 将来时间、by the time/ when 谓语动词是一般现在时的从句,主句用将来完成时。如:

He goes to school every day.

  (2)表示意愿、情感的动词:desire, dislike, forgive, hate, like, love, prefer, refuse, want, wish, fear, love, hate;

②be going to=will

  2. 不用will/shall表达将来时的形式:

If the sun were to rise in the west,how surprised these sunflowers would be.

  (5)其他动词:cost, appear, concern, contain, consist, deserve, matter, seem。

She opened her lips ss if(as though)(she was going)to speak.

  (1)表示感知的动词:hear, feel, notice, recognize, see, taste, smell;

He has a book.

  (6)其他与完成时连用的时间状语:all this while, all this year, for some time, so far, already, before, just, long, yet等。


  It is four years since John left school。


  I’d say whenever you are going after something that is belonging to you, anyone who is depriving you of the right to have it is criminal。

5.but for……若非/要不是……

  (3)by now、since 过去时间、in/during/for/over/the past/last few(或具体数字)years/days/months,主句用现在完成时, 但在it is 具体时间since/before这一句型中,主句更多的时候不用完成时。如:

Police looked into the case.→The case was looked into by police.

  (2)arrive, come, drive, go, leave, retire, return, set off, start, take off等表示移位的动词的进行体表示按计划肯定要发生的将来动作;

④表猜测的结构为疑问句时,要用Can…have…?句型之Can he have done it?

  (4)在It is the 序数词/形容词最高级 that的定语从句中,谓语动词常用现在完成时。如:

注意:表“曾去过”的经历时,用“have been”而非“have gone”

  Marlin is a young man of independent thinking who is not about to pay compliments to his political leaders。

第三节虚拟语气(subjunctive mood)

  It isn’t the first time that I have found myself in an embarrassing situation。


  (5)be on the point /verge of (doing)表示“马上就要”,一般不与表示将来的时间状语连用;

9.使用过去进行时的时机:主语 was/were 现在分词①表示过去某时正在做的动作:

  (1)by/between/up to/till 过去时间、since、by the time/when 表示过去发生情况的从句,主句用过去完成时。如:

6.过去完成时的时机:主语 had p.p.(had译作已经,或曾经)用以表示截止过去某时所完成的动作或经历。

  Between 1897 and 1919 at least 29 motion pictures in which artificial beings were portrayed had been produced。


  The changes that howe taken place place in air travel during the last sixty years would have seemed completely impossible to even the most brilliant scientists at the turn of the 19th century。

He writes a letter every day.




He looked as if (though)nothing had happened.




He was dying=he was going to die.=he was about to die.

  Greater efforts to increase agricultural production must be made if food shortage is to be avoided。

Ihope (that) he is safe.


Peter has lived here since two years ago.


I wish my parents longevity.=I hope (that) my parents can live long.

  If you want your film to be properly processed, you’ll have to wait and pick it up on Friday, which is the day after tomorrow。


It will rain tomorrow.


Mr.wang loves me as if(though)I were his own child.

If=in case(that)/on condition that/provided/providing(that)/so long as/as long as/此类连词一般只能用于纯条件情况下,其引导的从句均为一般现在时。

You look worried.

主语 will have p.p.译作“将已经”,表示到将来某时已经完成或仍在继续进行的动作或经历等。


I smell something burning.

12.hope的用法:之后接that从句时,用一般时态表示极大可能性:表现在情况用现在时;表将来情况用将来时;表完成的状况用完成时;表进行的状况用进行时。各that 都可省略

If it had not been(for 名词/一般过去时that从句),+主语(would/could/might/should/ought to) not have p.p.

didn't need to V是表过去的事实,即“不必……”同时也没有如此做;但need not have p.p.表与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,乃“本不必……但做了”

也就是if从句与过去事实相反,用过去完成时;主句与现在事实相反,则置助动词过去时。句型如下:if主语 had p.p.,主语 (would/could/might/should) V (now/today)

I wish he were here.



=were it not for his hard work,…(要不是他努力工作,我才不喜欢他)

I wish you a good time.=I hope (that) you (may)have a good time.





I have met him several times.

②A book was given him by me.(被动)


If he should be here,I (would/will)beat him.



I have been studying English for the past two weeks.

I had been sleeping when he came.

He ,who is lazy is doomed to failure.=he, who is lazy is doomed to fail.

In case of 名词 万一……

②过去完成进行时:when I called,he had been writing a letter for two hours.

If the cat were tosmile,I would pass out.

He was writing a letter when I came.



I got up early,lest I miss the train.

If he had done it,he would have felt sorry.→Had he done it.he would have felt sorry.

If it (were not/but for 名词) (for 名词/一般现在时that从句),主语+(could/would/might/should) not 原形动词

It is time he went to bed.=It is time for him togo to bed.


I hope they are having a good time.


In case of an accident,don't panic=in case (that) an accident,don't panic.

I will have been studying English for ten yearsby the end of this year.

Honest is the best policy.

=but for his hard work,…


He will have written the letter before I come.

If only he were here=I wish he were here.




He will be writing a letter when I come.

He is coming today.=he will be coming today.

He is going to come.=he will come.



注意:lest should=for fear that 主语 may V.(表现在或将来的情况)


If only I had known it earlier.=I wish I had known it earlier.

10.if only…要是……就好了:本句型只用于与现在事实相反或与过去事实相反的虚拟语气中,即该句型只能用过去完成时或过去时

I am doing laundry.

You muststudy hard lest you should fail the exam.=you must study hard for fear that you may fail the exam.=you must study hard for fear of failing the exam.

Any book will do as long as it is interesting.

He has written the letter.

11.使用现在完成进行时的时机:主语 have/has been 现在分词,译作“一直都在”,表示一直继续到现在且仍将继续下去的动作。


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